Low-level laser therapy for beta amyloid toxicity in rat hippocampus
Beta amyloid (Aβ) is well accepted to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present work evaluated the therapeutic effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLI) on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus. Aβ 1-42 was injected bilaterally to the hippocampus CA1 region of adult male rats, and 2-minute daily LLI treatment was applied transcranially after Aβ injection for 5 consecutive days. LLI treatment suppressed Aβ-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and long-term spatial and recognition memory impairments. Molecular studies revealed that LLI treatment: (1) restored mitochondrial dynamics, by altering fission and fusion protein levels thereby suppressing Aβ-induced extensive fragmentation; (2) suppressed Aβ-induced collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3) reduced oxidized mitochondrial DNA and excessive mitophagy; (4) facilitated mitochondrial homeostasis via modulation of the Bcl-2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio and of mitochondrial antioxidant expression; (5) promoted cytochrome c oxidase activity and adenosine triphosphate synthesis; (6) suppressed Aβ-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity; (7) enhanced the total antioxidant capacity of hippocampal CA1 neurons, whereas reduced the oxidative damage; and (8) suppressed Aβ-induced reactive gliosis, inflammation, and tau hyperphosphorylation. Although development of AD treatments has focused on reducing cerebral Aβ levels, by the time the clinical diagnosis of AD or mild cognitive impairment is made, the brain is likely to have already been exposed to years of elevated Aβ levels with dire consequences for multiple cellular pathways. By alleviating a broad spectrum of Aβ-induced pathology that includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and tau pathology, LLI could represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; Cognition; Inflammation; Low-level laser therapy; Mitochondrial dysfunction.
Significant Improvement in Cognition in Mild to Moderately Severe Dementia Cases Treated with Transcranial Plus Intranasal Photobiomodulation: Case Series Report
This study investigated whether patients with mild to moderately severe dementia or possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) Baseline scores of 10-24 would improve when treated with near-infrared photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy.
Animal studies have presented the potential of PBM for AD. Dysregulation of the brain’s default mode network (DMN) has been associated with AD, presenting the DMN as an identifiable target for PBM.
Materials and methods:
The study used 810 nm, 10 Hz pulsed, light-emitting diode devices combining transcranial plus intranasal PBM to treat the cortical nodes of the DMN (bilateral mesial prefrontal cortex, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, angular gyrus, and hippocampus). Five patients with mild to moderately severe cognitive impairment were entered into 12 weeks of active treatment as well as a follow-up no-treatment, 4-week period. Patients were assessed with the MMSE and Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) tests. The protocol involved weekly, in-clinic use of a transcranial-intranasal PBM device; and daily at-home use of an intranasal-only device.
There was significant improvement after 12 weeks of PBM (MMSE, p < 0.003; ADAS-cog, p < 0.023). Increased function, better sleep, fewer angry outbursts, less anxiety, and wandering were reported post-PBM. There were no negative side effects. Precipitous declines were observed during the follow-up no-treatment, 4-week period. This is the first completed PBM case series to report significant, cognitive improvement in mild to moderately severe dementia and possible AD cases.
Results suggest that larger, controlled studies are warranted. PBM shows potential for home treatment of patients with dementia and AD.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; LED; LLLT; dementia; intranasal; photobiomodulation; transcranial.
Effects of Home Photobiomodulation Treatments on Cognitive and Behavioral Function, Cerebral Perfusion, and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Dementia: A Pilot Trial
To examine the effects of transcranial and intranasal photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, administered at home, in patients with dementia.
This study sought to replicate and build upon a previously published case series report describing improved cognitive function in five patients with mild-to-moderate dementia after 12 weeks of transcranial and intranasal near-infrared (NIR) PBM therapy.
Materials and methods:
Eight participants (mean age: 79.8 ± 5.8 years old) diagnosed with dementia by their physicians were randomized to 12 weeks of usual care (UC, n = 4) or home PBM treatments (n = 4). The NIR PBM treatments were administered by a study partner at home three times per week with the Vielight Neuro Gamma device. The participants were assessed with the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog) subscale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks, and with arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI at baseline and 12 weeks.
At baseline, the UC and PBM groups did not differ demographically or clinically. However, after 12 weeks, there were improvements in ADAS-cog (group × time interaction: F1,6 = 16.35, p = 0.007) and NPI (group × time interaction: F1,6 = 7.52, p = 0.03), increased cerebral perfusion (group × time interaction: F1,6 = 8.46, p < 0.03), and increased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and lateral parietal nodes within the default-mode network in the PBM group. Conclusions: Because PBM was well tolerated and associated with no adverse side effects, these results support the potential of PBM therapy as a viable home treatment for individuals with dementia.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; LED; dementia; neuroimaging; photobiomodulation.